Reference Item


One item in a bibliographic list (typically a citation describing a referenced work although some journals may place notes, as well as citations, in a bibliographic list)


Conversion Note: There is usually a number or other label preceding each citation, for example [Lapeyre 2004], which a tagger may choose to preserve using the <label> element.


id Identifier

Model Information

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  ref          %ref-model;                                  >


The following, in order:

This element may be contained in:

<> Reference List (Bibliographic Reference List)

Tagged Example

<p>Geriatric day hospitals developed rapidly in the United Kingdom in the 
1960s as an important component of care provision. ... 
Although there is considerable descriptive literature on day hospital 
care,<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="B1">1</xref> concern has been expressed 
that evidence for effectiveness is equivocal and that day hospital care 
is expensive.<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="B2">2</xref> ...</p>...
<ref id="B1"><label>1</label>
<collab>Research Unit of the Royal 
College of Physicians and British
Geriatric Society</collab>
<source>Geriatric day hospitals: their role 
and guidelines for good
<ref id="B2">...</ref>