Preformatted Text


Used for preformatted text, such as computer code, in which whitespace (such as tabs, line feeds, and spaces) should be preserved

This element’s content typically is displayed or printed in a monofont to preserve character alignment.


Conversion Note: The position attribute may be used to indicate whether this element must be anchored at its exact location within the text, or whether it may float, for example, to the top of the next page, next column, to the end of a logical file, or within a separate window. For the typical <preformat> element, the “float or anchor” decision will be governed by the size of the object. For example, short code fragments are typically anchored whereas full programs are typically placed elsewhere such as in a separate window or at the end of the article.


alternate-form-of Alternate Form of Graphic, Media Object, Etc.
id Identifier
position Position
preformat-type Type of Preformatted Text
xml:lang Language
xml:space Space

Related Elements

Conversion Note: Poetry may be tagged with the <preformat> element if spacing is critical, but usually poetry should be tagged with the <verse-group> element, which may not preserve the exact indentation, but is likely to be displayed in a proportional font.

Model Information

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  preformat    %preformat-model;                            >


Any combination of:

This element may be contained in:

<abstract> Abstract; <ack> Acknowledgments; <app> Appendix; <app-group> Appendix Group; <body> Body of the Article; <boxed-text> Boxed Text; <chem-struct> Chemical Structure (Display); <chem-struct-wrapper> Chemical Structure Wrapper; <disp-formula> Formula, Display; <disp-quote> Quote, Displayed; <fig> Figure; <gloss-group> Glossary Group; <glossary> Glossary Elements List; <named-content> Named Special (Subject) Content; <notes> Notes; <p> Paragraph; <ref-list> Reference List (Bibliographic); <sec> Section; <supplementary-material> Supplementary Material; <table-wrap> Table Wrapper; <td> Table Data Cell (XHTML table model); <term> Definition List: Term; <th> Table Header Cell (XHTML table model); <trans-abstract> Translated Abstract

Tagged Examples

Example 1

<p>Trees, of course, are hardly a random choice for our
methodology.... Hierarchical trees have been understood as a
way of viewing document structures since the earliest days of
SGML development. Our initial tree structure was very simple:
&lt;!ELEMENT  implications  (tree+) &gt;
&lt;!ELEMENT  tree          (root, branches) &gt;
&lt;!ELEMENT  root          (term, synonym?) &gt;
&lt;!ELEMENT  branches      (term | (term, synonym) | tree)* &gt;
Terms are the literal strings for which the Ferret engine 
searches; they are the most specific expressions to be found 
in real documents of the concepts on which classifications 
rules act.</p>

Example 2

<p>As you can see in the following excerpt, use of literal
result elements is very convenient:
&lt;xsl:template match="div/divhead" priority="2"&gt;
  &lt;<named-content content-type="literal result">h2</named-content>&gt;
  &lt;<named-content content-type="literal result">/h2</named-content>&gt;