One exchange (a single “speech”) in a real or imaginary conversation between two or more entities, for example, between an interviewer and the person being interviewed, between a nurse (or doctor) and a patient, between a person and a computer, etc. Each time a new speaker takes over, a new <speech> starts, which names the speaker (<speaker>) and then contains one or more paragraphs (<p>) that hold what speaker said.


This DTD did not model an over-arching container element (such as a dialog or exchange) to contain a complete exchange between two parties, because there are so many different ways in which speeches are contained in observed journal samples. Therefore, in this Suite, a speech is not part of any particular larger element structure; a speech is just one identified fragment of the whole conversation.

Conversion Note: A <speech>Speech is modeled to name the speaker, followed by, at minimum, one full paragraph to contain the speech’s text, even if what is spoken is only a few words, for example:


Conversion Note: In the circumstance in which many voices are heard as one, for example, “All the Kings Men” or “Tom and Jerry”, the combination is considered to be a single speaker.


content-type Type of Content
id Identifier
xml:lang Language

Related Elements

A <speech> is a container element that names the person, object, or group speaking (<speaker>), followed by one complete utterance, modeled as one or more paragraphs.

Model Information

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  speech       (speaker, (%just-para.class;)+ )             >


The following, in order:

This element may be contained in:

<abstract> Abstract; <ack> Acknowledgments; <app> Appendix; <app-group> Appendix Group; <body> Body of the Article; <boxed-text> Boxed Text; <disp-quote> Quote, Displayed; <fig> Figure; <gloss-group> Glossary Group; <glossary> Glossary Elements List; <named-content> Named Special (Subject) Content; <notes> Notes; <p> Paragraph; <ref-list> Reference List (Bibliographic); <sec> Section; <supplementary-material> Supplementary Material; <table-wrap> Table Wrapper; <trans-abstract> Translated Abstract

Tagged Example

<p>The participants understood the purpose of their peer
response groups to be finding mistakes or problems in each
other&rsquo;s essays. ...Clara, one of the Chinese-speakers,
explains why she no longer believes the initial positive comments:
<p>I think Aeenoy start this way. I think she always do
this way, like say some good thing first. And then I know
the bad thing is coming.</p>
<p>So, why doe she do that?</p>
<p>I think it gives somebody self-esteem ...</p></speech>