Year of publication of the article or other work


The <year> element is used in two contexts: as a part of the metadata concerning the article itself, and as part of a description of a cited work inside a bibliographic reference (<citation>) element.

Conversion Note: When possible, the year should be expressed as a 4-digit number, for example, “1776”, “1924”, or “0042”.

Model Information

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  year         (#PCDATA)                                    >


Text, numbers, or special characters

This element may be contained in:

<access-date> Access Date for Cited Work; <citation> Citation; <conf-date> Conference Date; <date> Date; <product> Product Information; <pub-date> Publication Date; <related-article> Related Article Information; <string-date> Date as a String

Tagged Examples

Example 1

In article metadata:

<pub-date pub-type="pub">
<day>27</day> <month>03</month>
<volume>318</volume> <issue>7187</issue>
<fpage>837</fpage> <lpage>841</lpage>
<date date-type="accepted">
<day>29</day> <month>01</month>

Example 2

In a bibliographic reference list:

<ref id="B8"><label>8</label>
<article-title>Effects and costs of day-care services
for the chronically ill: a randomized experiment.</article-title>
<source>Medical Care</source>
<pub-id pub-id-type="pmid">6772889</pub-id>