Et Al.


Within bibliographic references and contributor groupings, this element designates unnamed individuals (typically indicated in print with the text “et al.”).


Many journal DTDs model the <etal> element as EMPTY, that is, the element has no content. Such an empty element is typically used as a place holder, for example, to generate the text “et al.” via a stylesheet. In this DTD, the element is usually used as an empty element, but the DTD also accommodates those journal DTDs (Blackwell’s, for example) which expect content inside <etal>, so the element is modeled with text content instead of as formally EMPTY and may contain text such as “Associates, co-workers, and colleagues”.

Model Information

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  etal         %etal-model;                                 >


Any combination of:

This element may be contained in:

<citation> Citation; <contrib> Contributor; <contrib-group> Contributor Group; <person-group> Person Group for a Cited Publication; <product> Product Information; <related-article> Related Article Information

Tagged Example

<ref id="B26">
<article-title>Measuring outcomes in care of the elderly.</article-title>
<source>J R Coll Phys Lond</source>
<pub-id pub-id-type="pmid">7807432</pub-id>