Within bibliographic references and contributor groupings, this element designates unnamed individuals (typically indicated in print with the text “et al.”).
Many journal DTDs model the <etal> element as EMPTY, that is, the element has no content. Such an empty element is typically used as a place holder, for example, to generate the text “et al.” via a stylesheet. In this DTD, the element is usually used as an empty element, but the DTD also accommodates those journal DTDs (Blackwell’s, for example) which expect content inside <etal>, so the element is modeled with text content instead of as formally EMPTY and may contain text such as “Associates, co-workers, and colleagues”.
<!ELEMENT etal %etal-model; >
Any combination of:
... <back> <ref-list>... <ref id="B26"> <label>26</label> <citation> <name><surname>Parker</surname> <given-names>SG</given-names></name> <name><surname>Du</surname> <given-names>X</given-names></name> <name><surname>Bardsley</surname> <given-names>R</given-names></name><etal/> <article-title>Measuring outcomes in care of the elderly.</article-title> <source>J R Coll Phys Lond</source> <volume>28</volume> <year>1994</year> <fpage>428</fpage> <lpage>433</lpage>. <pub-id pub-id-type="pmid">7807432</pub-id> </citation> </ref> </ref-list> </back></article>