Type of Citation


Defines the type of work being referenced (type of citation), for example, a book is being cited or a journal article is being cited


Some journal Tag Sets make a distinction between different types of references, for example, using different names and distinct content models for book references, journal references, patent references, etc. This attribute was designed to preserve the information about the type of reference, for those tagged references that explicitly describe their type.

This attribute should be used if the type of citation is one (or more) of the suggested values and should otherwise be omitted. A citation that can be identified as more than one of the types (e.g., both a government report and a book) should have the types combined (e.g., citation-type="gov | book").

Conversion Note: If the type of reference (<citation> or <nlm-citation>) is not named in the source file, it need not be identified using this attribute.

Attribute Values

In Elements

<citation> Citation
<nlm-citation> NLM Citation Model
Value Meaning
Text, numbers, or special characters The type of source being cited in the bibliographic reference citation, for example, “journal” for a journal article. This attribute may take any value, but see the list of suggested values below.
Restriction: This attribute may be specified if the element is used.

Suggested usage

Although designed to accept any text as its value, the following values are suggested for naming the type of object that the citation describes:


Book or book series


Informal or personal communication, such as a phone call or an email message


Conference proceedings


Discussion among a group in some forum — public, private, or electronic — which may or may not be moderated, for example, a single discussion thread in a listserv


Government publication or government standard


Journal article


Listserv or discussion group (as an entity, as opposed to a single discussion thread which uses the value “discussion”)


Patent or patent application


Standards document issued by recognized standards body, such as ISO, ANSI, IEEE, OASIS, etc.


Work written as part of the completion of an advanced degree