Container element to contain the information (such as name and affiliation) about a single contributor to an article, for example, one author


Conversion Note: Use <xref> to point to the institution (Affiliation<aff>), the corresponding information (Correspondence Information<corresp>), or any author footnotes in the author note group.

Anonymous. The name of a contributor that is being withheld or is not known may be recorded using the EMPTY element <anonymous>, which is expected cause text such an “Anonymous” or “anon.” to be generated for display or print.

Conversion Note: For users of the Elsevier Tag Sets, when the ranking or importance of authors has been marked as a note (for example, using <ranking>), the ranking information may be encoded in the <role> element. Thus, the Elsevier-tagged text:


would be converted to:



contrib-type Type of Contribution
corresp Corresponding Author
deceased Deceased
equal-contrib Equal Contribution
id Identifier
rid Reference to an Identifier
xlink:actuate Actuating the Link
xlink:href Href (Linking Mechanism)
xlink:role Role of the Link
xlink:show Showing the Link
xlink:title Title of the Link
xlink:type Type of Link
xmlns:xlink XLink Namespace Declaration

Related Elements

Use the Collaborative (Group) Author<collab> element for contributions by organizations or groups of people. Use the <on-behalf-of> element within the contributor information to indicate that a person has written as a representative of (on behalf of) an organization or group.

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  contrib      %contrib-model;                              >

Expanded Content Model

((anonymous | collab | name | string-name | degrees | address | aff | author-comment | bio | email | etal | ext-link | fn | on-behalf-of | role | uri | xref | x)*)


Any one of:

This element may be contained in:

<contrib-group>, <sig-block>

Example 1

<contrib contrib-type="issue-editor">
<role>Special Issue Editor</role>
<contrib contrib-type="issue-editor">
<role>Special Issue Editor</role>

Example 2

<article-id pub-id-type="pmid">10092260</article-id> 
<title-group><article-title>Systematic review of day hospital care for elderly
<contrib contrib-type="author"><name><surname>Forster</surname><given-names>Anne</given-names></name>
<role>research physiotherapist</role><xref
<contrib contrib-type="author">
<role>consultant physician</role><xref ref-type="aff">
<contrib contrib-type="author">
<role>senior lecturer</role><xref ref-type="aff"><sup><italic>b</italic></sup></xref>
<author-comment><p>on behalf of the
Day Hospital Group</p></author-comment></contrib></contrib-group>
<aff><sup><italic>a</italic></sup>Department of Health Care for the Elderly, St
Luke&#x2019;s Hospital, Bradford BD5 0NA, <sup><italic>b</italic></sup>Academic Section
of Geriatric Medicine, Royal Infirmary, Glasgow G4 0SF</aff>