Article Subtitle

The subordinate name of a journal component such as an article


Subtitle. In the article metadata, the article subtitle and title are identified with two different elements and tagged separately, using the <article-title> and <subtitle> elements. Within a bibliographic reference citation, the subtitle cannot be preserved separately as this Tag Set identifies no cited-subtitle elements.

For references using either the <element-citation> or the <nlm-citation>, since these two reference models do not permit untagged text there are two choices:

For references using the <mixed-citation>, there are two choices:

Best Practice. Although this Tag Set cannot enforce either practice, retrieval performance will be enhanced if the subtitle is consistently placed within the <article-title> element (or the <source> element for book titles, proceedings titles, and other titles) for all cited material. Either with a <named-content> or as untagged text, the subtitle is easy to lose to searching. It is also not always obvious, particularly with historical or foreign material, which part of a multipart title is the main title and which the subtitle.


content-type Type of Content
xml:lang Language

Related Elements

There are several elements concerned with the title of an article, all contained within the container element <title-group> in the article metadata. The <article-title> is the full title of the article in the original language of the document. The <subtitle> is a subordinate or auxiliary title that adds information to the full title or modifies the full title. The <alt-title> is another version of an article title, usually created so that the title can be processed in a special way, for example, a short version of the title for use in a Table of Contents, an ASCII title, or a version of the title to be used in the right-running-head. The <trans-title-group> is also a container element, inside the <title-group>, that holds together a translated title (<trans-title>) and its translated subtitle (<trans-subtitle>). The translated title is a version of the title translated into a language other than the original language of publication, and the matching subtitle is a version of the subtitle translated into a language other than the original language.

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  subtitle     (#PCDATA %title-elements;)*                  >

Expanded Content Model

(#PCDATA | email | ext-link | uri | inline-supplementary-material | related-article | related-object | hr | bold | italic | monospace | overline | overline-start | overline-end | roman | sans-serif | sc | strike | underline | underline-start | underline-end | alternatives | inline-graphic | private-char | chem-struct | inline-formula | tex-math | mml:math | abbrev | milestone-end | milestone-start | named-content | styled-content | fn | target | xref | sub | sup | x | break)*


Any combination of:

This element may be contained in:

<title-group>, <verse-group>


<article-title>Adaptins<fn id="FN206">
<p>Online version of this essay contains
supplemental tabular material.</p>
<subtitle>The Final Recount</subtitle>