Date as a String

A date represented as text


This element is typically used for dates for which months and years are not given (e.g., “In apple blossom time”). While the <string-date> element may also be used for any date that is represented as a sequence of characters (i.e., “January, 2001”, “Fall 2001”, “March 11, 2001”), it is best practice, when possible, to tag the year, month, and/or day as numbers, so “January, 2001” would become:


This Archiving Tag Set allows <string-date> both inside <date> and at the same level as <date>. This flexibility enables preservation of nearly any publisher’s structure.


content-type Type of Content

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  string-date  (#PCDATA %string-date-elements;)*            >

Expanded Content Model

(#PCDATA | email | ext-link | uri | inline-supplementary-material | related-article | related-object | hr | bold | italic | monospace | overline | overline-start | overline-end | roman | sans-serif | sc | strike | underline | underline-start | underline-end | alternatives | inline-graphic | private-char | chem-struct | inline-formula | tex-math | mml:math | abbrev | milestone-end | milestone-start | named-content | styled-content | fn | target | xref | sub | sup | x | day | month | season | year)*


Any combination of:

This element may be contained in:

<date>, <element-citation>, <history>, <mixed-citation>, <pub-date>


<ref id="B12"><label>[12 Lapeyre]</label>
<string-name>Rene Lapeyre du Fontclaire Carnu, IV</string-name>
<article-title>Foraminifera of the Lower Hellstooth</article-title>
<source>Local Paleo</source>
<string-date>Some time before <year>1924</year></string-date>
<publisher-loc>Rockville, MD</publisher-loc>