An article that is completely contained inside another article. This model assumes that there is always an outside article, and that both the article and the sub-article have their own metadata. The container article will have, at the very least, journal information, issue information, and start and end pages; it may also have a title, author, or other metadata. The contained sub-article will have its own, independent metadata, such as authors or a smaller page range, that it may not share with the article that encloses it. The sub-article metadata may be tagged using the <front-stub> element if all of the journal metadata is identical to that of the outside article; if the <front-stub> element is used, any metadata not specifically tagged is inherited from the outside article.


For a detailed discussion on the use of <sub-article>, see Sub-articles to an Article.

Conversion Note: “Super-articles” that contain other articles rarely contain much content of their own, perhaps just a title and introductory paragraph.

Conversion Note: This construction should not be used for an article and its response, or for a series of responses, even if the original article to which the responses are replying is elsewhere.

A journal article <article> may be divided into several components:

  1. the <front> (the article metadata or header information, which contains both journal and article metadata);
  2. the <body> (the textual and graphical content of the article);
  3. any <back> (any ancillary information such as a glossary, reference list, or appendix);
  4. a <floats-group> (single container element some publishers and archives use to hold all floating elements such as figures and tables that are referenced in the article body or back matter); and
  5. either a series of <response> elements or a series of <sub-article> elements. (A <response> is a commentary on the article itself, such as a summation by an editor, an answer to a letter-article, or words from the author responding to peer-review comments. Sub-articles are articles such as news pieces, abstracts, or committee reports that are completely contained within a main article.)


article-type Type of Article
id Identifier
xml:lang Language

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  sub-article  %sub-article-model;                          >

Expanded Content Model

((front | front-stub), 
body?, back?, floats-group?, 
(sub-article* | response*))


The following, in order:

This element may be contained in:

<article>, <sub-article>


<journal-id journal-id-type="publisher">BR MED J</journal-id>
<publisher-name>British Medical Journal</publisher-name>
<subject>General Practice</subject>
<series-title>Controversy in primary care</series-title>
<article-title>Should asymptomatic haemochromatosis
be treated?</article-title></title-group>
<pub-date pub-type="pub"><day>13</day>

<copyright-statement>Copyright &#x00A9; 2000,
British Medical Journal</copyright-statement>
<body><p>Genetic testing ...</p>

<sub-article article-type="research-article">
<journal-id journal-id-type="publisher">BR MED J</journal-id>
<publisher-name>British Medical Journal</publisher-name>
<article-title>Treatment can be onerous for patient and
<contrib contrib-type="author"><name>
<given-names>Clare J</given-names></name>
<role>general practitioner</role>
<xref ref-type="aff"><sup><italic>a</italic></sup></xref>
<contrib contrib-type="author">
<role>retired headmistress</role>
Group Practice, Honiton, Devon EX14 2NY</aff>
<fn><p>Correspondence to: C Seamark
<fn><p>Competing interests: None declared.</p></fn>
<date date-type="accepted">
<copyright-statement>Copyright &#x00A9; 2000,
British Medical Journal</copyright-statement>

<p>The development of genetic testing for disease has
raised the problem of whether to test asymptomatic
individuals. ...</p>
<p>We thank MH&apos;s family for their willingness to be involved in
genetic testing ...</p>

<sub-article article-type="research-article">...</sub-article>
<sub-article article-type="research-article">...</sub-article>