Container element for any series information used in a bibliographic reference (<citation> or <nlm-citation>)


Within a citation to a non-journal item (for example, a book possibly spanning multiple volumes), the <series> element can contain the unique title of the entire series, as shown in the tagged example below.

The word “series” is used in journal publishing with two very different meanings. The element <series> is used only for those issues of journals are part of a publishing series. These journals will have series information (just as they have an issue number) to describe the series of the journal in which the article is published. Within a bibliographic reference citation (<citation> or <nlm-citation>), this series information can be tagged using the <series> element.

For extensive examples of formatted <nlm-citation>s including use of <series>s in <nlm-citation>s, see: Sample PubMed Central Citations. To see tagged versions of these examples, see: Sample PubMed Central Citations - XML Tagged.

Model Information

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  series       (#PCDATA %series-elements;)*                 >


Any combination of:

This element may be contained in:

<citation> Citation; <nlm-citation> NLM Citation Model; <product> Product Information; <related-article> Related Article Information

Tagged Example


In a NLM-style bibliographic citation:

<nlm-citation citation-type="book">
<person-group person-group-type="author">
<given-names>Erich H.</given-names>
<source>Ethical dilemmas in modern medicine</source>
<publisher-loc>Lewiston (NY)</publisher-loc>
<publisher-name>E. Mellen Press</publisher-name>
<page-count count="343"/>
<series>Studies in health and human services; 8</series>