Article Title


The full title of a journal article or other journal component such as a book review


The <article-title> element is used in two contexts: as a part of the metadata concerning the article itself and as part of bibliographic reference metadata inside bibliographic citations (<citation> and <nlm-citation>).

In the article metadata, the article subtitle and title are two different elements and should be tagged separately, using the <article-title> and <subtitle> elements. Within a bibliographic reference citation, the subtitle cannot be preserved separately. For citations using <citation>, it is possible to place the subtitle with the title in the <article-title> element (or the <source> element for book titles, proceedings titles, and other titles) or to leave it as untagged data characters within the text of the reference. For references using <nlm-citation>, the subtitle must be included with the title, since that reference model does not permit untagged text. Although this Tag Set cannot enforce either practice when using <citation>, retrieval performance will be enhanced if the subtitle is consistently placed in the <article-title> element (or the <source> element for book titles, proceedings titles, and other titles) for all cited material, so this is considered best practice.

For extensive examples of formatted <nlm-citation>s including use of <article-title>s in <nlm-citation>s, see: Sample PubMed Central Citations. To see tagged versions of these examples, see: Sample PubMed Central Citations - XML Tagged.


id Identifier
xml:lang Language

Related Elements

There are two elements concerned with the title of an article, contained within the wrapper element <title-group> in the article metadata. The <article-title> is the full title of the article. The <subtitle> is a subordinate or auxiliary title that adds information to the full title or modifies the full title.

Model Information

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  article-title
                        (#PCDATA %title-elements;)*                  >


Any combination of:

This element may be contained in:

<citation> Citation; <nlm-citation> NLM Citation Model; <product> Product Information; <related-article> Related Article Information; <title-group> Title Group

Tagged Examples

Example 1

In article metadata:

<article-title>Systematic review of day hospital care for 
elderly people</article-title>

Example 2

In a NLM-style bibliographic citation:

<nlm-citation citation-type="journal">
<article-title>Electrogastrographic study of patients with unexplained 
nausea, bloating and vomiting</article-title>