Et Al


Within bibliographic references and contributor groupings, this element designates unnamed individuals (typically indicated in print with the text “et al.”).


Most journals model this as an EMPTY element, typically used to generate the text “et al.” from a stylesheet. However, a few journal tag sets (Blackwell’s, for example) expect content for this element, with such text as “Associates, coworkers, and colleagues”. Therefore (as of Version 2.3), this is an EMPTY element in the more prescriptive Publishing and Authoring Tag Sets and an element with textual contentment in the Archiving Tag Set.

This element may only be used in bibliographic references (in <citation> and <nlm-citation> via <person-group>). For extensive examples of formatted <nlm-citation>s including use of <etal>s in <nlm-citation>s, see: Sample PubMed Central Citations. To see tagged versions of these examples, see: Sample PubMed Central Citations - XML Tagged.

Model Information

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  etal         %etal-model;                                 >


Text, numbers, or special characters, zero or more

This element may be contained in:

<person-group> Person Group for a Cited Publication

Tagged Example

In a NLM-style bibliographic citation:

<ref id="B27">
<person-group person-group-type="author">
<article-title>Functional discovery via a compendium
of expression profiles</article-title>
<p>This report is the most extensive DNA expression
profile of yeast genes. It examines the expression
pattern of the whole yeast genome in 300 mutant
strains. It infers the function of many unknown
genes comparing profiles among the different