The surname of a person


If there is only one name, for example, “Cher” or “Pele”, it is considered to be a surname for consistency purposes.

If the name parts are unknown or untagged, put the whole name within the Surname element (<surname>), for example, <surname>Prince Charles</surname>. The tag abuse of overloading the <surname> tag is likely to lead to better searching in a repository than merely leaving the person’s name untagged.

Model Information

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  surname      (#PCDATA %surname-elements;)*                >


Text, numbers, or special characters, zero or more

This element may be contained in:

<name> Name of Person; <speaker> Speaker

Tagged Example

<article-title>Systematic review of day hospital 
care for elderly people</article-title>
<contrib contrib-type="author">
<given-names>Anne Williams</given-names>
<role>research physiotherapist</role>
<aff id="StLukes">Department of Health Care
for the Elderly, St Luke&#x2019;s Hospital, Bradford BD5 
<copyright-statement>Copyright &#x00A9; 1999, British 
Medical Journal</copyright-statement>
<copyright-holder>British Medical Journal</copyright-holder>
<p>To examine the effectiveness of day hospital attendance 
in prolonging independent living for elderly people.</p>