Name of Person (Unstructured)

Container element for personal names where the stricter organization of the <name> element cannot be followed.

This is a very loose element, which may contain text, numbers, special characters, generated text, and any or all of the naming elements, such as <surname>.


For a detailed discussion on the use of <string-name>, see Personal Names in Citations.

If the name parts are unknown, put the whole name within the <string-name> element, for example, <string-name>Ice Cube</string-name>. Use of the <string-name> element is more likely to lead to better searching in a repository than merely leaving the person’s name untagged.

Since the <string-name> model permits the tagging of name parts within it, a name like “Prince Charles” could be tagged as a given name “Charles” (<given-names>) and prefix “Prince” (<prefix>), but such tagging is likely to be rare and <string-name>Prince Charles</string-name> is also valid tagging.

Examples of when name parts might be usefully tagged inside <string-name> include:

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  string-name  (#PCDATA %string-name-elements;)*            >

Expanded Content Model

(#PCDATA | degrees | given-names | prefix | surname | suffix)*


Any combination of:

This element may be contained in:

<element-citation>, <mixed-citation>, <person-group>, <principal-award-recipient>, <principal-investigator>, <product>, <related-article>, <related-object>


The <string-name> element is probably the most commonly used naming element in mixed-style citations (<mixed-citation>), when it is important to preserve the comma and space (or similar punctuation) between the parts of the name:

<ref id="B6">
<surname>DerSimonian</surname>, <given-names>R</given-names>
</string-name>, <string-name>
<given-names>N</given-names>, <surname>Laird</surname>
<article-title>Meta-analysis in clinical trials</article-title>
. <source>Controlled Clin Trials</source>
 [<pub-id pub-id-type="pmid">3802833</pub-id>].