A headed group of material; the basic structural unit of an article


A very short article may contain nothing but paragraphs (and other paragraph-level elements such as figures and tables), but most journal articles are divided into sections, each with a title that describes the content of the section, such as “Introduction”, “Methodology”, or “Conclusions”.

Sections are recursive, that is, various levels of sections are indicated by containment, not by different names for the subsections. A <sec> element may contain lower-level sections that are also tagged using the <sec> element, not tagged explicitly as <sec2>, <sec3>, <subsec1>, etc.


id Identifier
sec-type Type of Section
specific-use Specific Use
xml:lang Language

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  sec          %sec-model;                                  >

Expanded Content Model

(boxed-text | chem-struct-wrap | fig | graphic | media | preformat | supplementary-material | 
table-wrap | disp-formula | disp-formula-group | p | def-list | list | disp-quote | speech | 
statement | verse-group)*, 


The following, in order:

This element may be contained in:

<abstract>, <app>, <bio>, <body>, <boxed-text>, <sec>


<sec sec-type="intro">
<p>Geriatric day hospitals developed rapidly in the United Kingdom 
in the 1960s as an important component of care provision. The model 
has since been widely applied in several Western countries. Day 
hospitals provide multidisciplinary assessment and rehabilitation 
in an outpatient setting and have a pivotal position between hospital 
and home based services .... We therefore undertook a systematic 
review of the randomized trials of day hospital care.</p>
<sec sec-type="methods">
<p>The primary question addressed was ....</p> 
<title>Inclusion criteria</title> 
<p>We set out to identify all ....</p>
<title>Search strategy</title> 
<p>We searched for ....</p>