Collaborative (Group) Author

A group of authors, editors, or other contributors credited under a single name, either as a collaboration in the strict sense of the word, or when an organization such as a laboratory, educational institution, corporation, or department acts as the contributor, for example authored the work


Not to be confused with the element <contrib-group>, which is a container element that holds information such as the names and affiliations of a group of individual contributors.

This element may be used within bibliographic references <element-citation> and <mixed-citation>.


collab-type Type of Collaboration
id Identifier
xlink:actuate Actuating the Link
xlink:href Href (Linking Mechanism)
xlink:role Role of the Link
xlink:show Showing the Link
xlink:title Title of the Link
xlink:type Type of Link
xmlns:xlink XLink Namespace Declaration

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  collab       (#PCDATA %collab-elements;)*                 >

Expanded Content Model

(#PCDATA | bold | italic | monospace | overline | roman | sc | strike | underline | sub | sup | addr-line | country | fax | institution | phone | address | aff | author-comment | bio | email | ext-link | on-behalf-of | role | uri | xref)*


Any combination of:

This element may be contained in:

<contrib>, <element-citation>, <mixed-citation>, <nlm-citation>, <person-group>, <product>, <related-article>, <related-object>

Example 1

<contrib contrib-type="author">
Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS),
<institution>World Health Organization</institution>,
Geneva, <country>Switzerland</country>
<contrib contrib-type="author">
Nonoccupational HIV PEP Task Force, Brown University
AIDS Program and the <institution>Rhode Island Department
of Health</institution>, Providence, Rhode Island</collab>

Example 2

In an mixed-style bibliographic citation (punctuation and spacing preserved):

<ref id="B1">
<mixed-citation publication-type="book">
<collab>Research Unit of the Royal
College of Physicians and British
Geriatric Society</collab>.
<source>Geriatric day hospitals: their role
and guidelines for good

Example 3

In an element-style bibliographic citation (punctuation and spacing removed):

<element-citation publication-type="report">
<collab>National High Blood Pressure Education Program
<source>The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation,
and treatment of high blood pressure in children and
<edition>Rev. ed</edition>
<publisher-loc>Bethesda (MD)</publisher-loc>
<publisher-name>National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
<size units="page">48 p</size>
<comment>(NIH publication; no. 05-5267)</comment>