Et Al


Within bibliographic references and contributor groupings, this element designates unnamed individuals (typically indicated in print with the text “et al.”).


As in many journal DTDs, this element is modeled as an EMPTY element, that is, an element with no content and any real value stored in one or more attributes. This contentless element is frequently used to generate the text “et al.” via a stylesheet.

Note: Unlike the descriptive Journal Archiving and Interchange DTD, this prescriptive Publishing DTD does not accommodate those journal DTDs (Blackwell’s, for example) that expect content inside <etal>, with such text as “Associates, co-workers, and colleagues”.

This element may be used in bibliographic references <citation> and <nlm-citation>. For extensive examples of formatted <nlm-citation>s including use of <etal>s in <nlm-citation>s, see: Sample PubMed Central Citations. To see tagged versions of these examples, see: Sample PubMed Central Citations - XML Tagged.

Model Description

This is an EMPTY element.

Tagged Example

<nlm-citation citation-type="journal">
  <article-title>Quaternary salts of 2-[(hydroxyimino)methyl]imidazole</article-title>
  <source>J Med Chem</source>