Season of publication, such as “Spring”, “Third Quarter”, etc.


This element is used in both article metadata and inside a bibliographic reference (<citation> or <nlm-citation>).

For extensive examples of formatted <nlm-citation>s including use of <season>s in <nlm-citation>s, see: Sample PubMed Central Citations. To see tagged versions of these examples, see: Sample PubMed Central Citations - XML Tagged.

Conversion Note: This is a rarely used element; a season should only be tagged if no other date is available.

Model Information

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  season       (#PCDATA)                                    >


Text, numbers, or special characters

This element may be contained in:

<citation> Citation; <date> Date; <nlm-citation> NLM Citation Model; <product> Product Information; <pub-date> Publication Date; <related-article> Related Article Information

Tagged Examples

Example 1

In article metadata:

<article-title>Raptor Science</article-title>
<subtitle>Capturing Cosmological &ldquo;Winks&rdquo;</subtitle>
<pub-date pub-type="epub-ppub">

Example 2

In a NLM-style bibliographic citation:

<nlm-citation citation-type="journal">
<article-title>Social workers as culture mediators in health 
care settings</article-title>
<source>Health Soc Work</source>