Et Al


Within bibliographic references and contributor groupings, this element designates unnamed individuals (typically indicated in print with the text “et al.”).


As in many journal DTDs, this element is modeled as an EMPTY element, that is, the element has no content. The element is typically used as a place holder, for example, to generate the text “et al.” via a stylesheet.

Note: Unlike the Archiving DTD, the Journal Publishing DTD does not accommodate those journal DTDs (Blackwell’s, for example) that expect content inside <etal>, with such text as “Associates, co-workers, and colleagues”.

In this DTD, this element may only be used in bibliographic references (in <citation>, <nlm-citation>, and <person-group>). For extensive examples of formatted <nlm-citation>s including use of <etal>s in <nlm-citation>s, see: Sample PubMed Central Citations. To see tagged versions of these examples, see: Sample PubMed Central Citations - XML Tagged.

Model Information

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  etal         %etal-model;                                 >


This is an EMPTY element

This element may be contained in:

<citation> Citation; <person-group> Person Group for a Cited Publication; <product> Product Information; <related-article> Related Article Information

Tagged Example

<nlm-citation citation-type="journal">
<article-title>Quaternary salts of 2-[(hydroxyimino)methyl]imidazole</article-title>
<source>J Med Chem</source>