Translated Title


An alternative version of an article title (<article-title>). The content of this element is an article title that has been translated into a language other than that of the original article title.


Within a bibliographic reference (<citation> or <nlm-citation>), the <trans-title> element contains the title of a cited article, but with the article title given in a different language from that given in the <article-title> element. For example, if an article is originally in French, the <article-title> element would contain the French title, and the <trans-title> might contain, for example, the equivalent English title.

In bibliographic references, translated subtitles should be wrapped into the translated titles.

Cited, translated book titles are tagged with the <trans-source> element.

For extensive examples of formatted <nlm-citation>s including use of <trans-title>s in <nlm-citation>s, see: Sample PubMed Central Citations. To see tagged versions of these examples, see: Sample PubMed Central Citations - XML Tagged.


xml:lang Language

Related Elements

There are several elements concerned with the title of an article, all contained within the wrapper element <title-group> in the article metadata. The <article-title> is the full title of the article in the original language of the document. The <subtitle> is a subordinate or auxiliary title that adds information to the full title or modifies the full title. The <alt-title> is another version of an article title, usually created so that the title can be processed in a special way, for example, a short version of the title for use in a Table of Contents, an ASCII title, or a version of the title to be used in the right-running-head. The <trans-title> is a version of the title translated into a language other than the original language of publication, and the <trans-subtitle> is a version of the subtitle translated into a language other than the original language.

Model Information

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  trans-title  (#PCDATA %title-elements;)*                  >


Any combination of:

This element may be contained in:

<citation> Citation; <nlm-citation> NLM Citation Model; <product> Product Information; <related-article> Related Article Information; <title-group> Title Group

Tagged Example

<nlm-citation citation-type="journal">
<article-title xml:lang="fr">Localisations palmaires purpurioques de 
la dermatitie herpetiforme</article-title>
<trans-title>Purpuric palmar sites of dermatitis herpetiformis</trans-title>
<source>Ann Dermatol Vernerol</source>