Time Stamp for Cited Work


Used to record any time stamp that was found on the cited resource when it was examined, for resources such as databases that may use a time signature to identify different versions


This element does not represent the time when the cited resource was examined, but rather the time it was produced or distributed, or other milestone the resource creators chose to record the time.

This element may be used in bibliographic references <citation> and <nlm-citation>. For extensive examples of formatted <nlm-citation>s including use of <time-stamp>s in <nlm-citation>s, see: Sample PubMed Central Citations. To see tagged versions of these examples, see: Sample PubMed Central Citations - XML Tagged.

Related Elements

The <access-date> element is the date on which the cited work was examined. Some online resources are changing so quickly that a citation to the resource is not complete without the date on which the resource was examined. In contrast, the element <time-stamp> indicates a date or time that the resource was published or made available. The time stamp is applied to the resource by its creators, usually as a version indicator, and says nothing about when a contributor examined the resource, only what version was found at the time of examination.

Model Information

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  time-stamp   (#PCDATA %time-stamp-elements;)              >


Text, numbers, or special characters

This element may be contained in:

<citation> Citation; <nlm-citation> NLM Citation Model; <product> Product Information; <related-article> Related Article Information

Tagged Example

<nlm-citation citation-type="commun">
<person-group person-group-type="author">
<article-title>New Z39.50 resource [Internet]</article-title>
<source>Message to: Karen Patrias</source>
<time-stamp>1:18 pm</time-stamp>
<access-date>cited 1998 Feb 28</access-date>
<comment>[about 2 screens]</comment>