Container element for any series information used in a bibliographic reference (<citation> or <nlm-citation>)


Within a citation to a non-journal item (for example, a book possibly spanning multiple volumes), the <series> element can contain the unique title of the entire series, as shown in the tagged example below.

The word “series” is used in journal publishing with two very different meanings. The element <series> is used for only one of those meanings, and the two elements <series-text> and <series-title> are used only for the other.

For extensive examples of formatted <nlm-citation>s including use of <series>s in <nlm-citation>s, see: Sample PubMed Central Citations. To see tagged versions of these examples, see: Sample PubMed Central Citations - XML Tagged.

Related Elements

Within the article metadata, the <series-title> element names a publishing or in-journal series, and the <series-text> element provides textual description (if any) of the series. The similarly named but unrelated element <series> is a wrapper element to hold any series data mentioned in a bibliographic reference (<citation> or <nlm-citation>).

Model Information

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  series       (#PCDATA %series-elements;)*                 >


Any combination of:

This element may be contained in:

<citation> Citation; <nlm-citation> NLM Citation Model; <product> Product Information; <related-article> Related Article Information

Tagged Example

<nlm-citation citation-type="book">
<person-group person-group-type="author">
<given-names>Erich H.</given-names>
<source>Ethical dilemmas in modern medicine</source>
<publisher-loc>Lewiston (NY)</publisher-loc>
<publisher-name>E. Mellen Press</publisher-name>
<series>Studies in health and human services; 8</series>