Type of Article


Indicates what kind of article this is, for example, a research article, a commentary, a book or product review, a case report, a calendar, etc. This is a prescribed list of values that can be checked by XML parsers.


This attribute can be used to attach information classes to articles for grouping or searching. An archive may use this, for example, to preserve the publisher’s classification of an article. For best practice, all articles should be assigned types if possible. If the article is not one of the listed types or the type of article cannot be determined, the “other” attribute value may be used, or the attribute may be omitted.

Use for primary article — When the article is a commentary on another article (for example, a correction or addendum), this attribute contains metadata concerning the commentary itself; it does not define the kind of article that is being corrected or amended.


Conversion Note: When possible, this attribute should used on the <article> element to provide typing information for retrieval or record keeping. Many publishers indicate the type of article, either in an attribute like this one, or with unique element declarations (such as <review> or <calendar>), and this attribute has been designed to preserve that information.

Attribute Values

In Elements

<article> Article
<sub-article> Sub-Article
Value Meaning
abstract The article itself is an abstract (of a paper or presentation) that usually has been presented or published separately.
addendum A published work that adds additional information or clarification to another work (The somewhat similar value “correction” corrects an error in previously published material.)
announcement Material announced in the publication (may or may not be directly related to the publication)
article-commentary A work whose subject or focus is another article or articles; this article comments on the other article(s). (This value would be used when the editors of a publication invite an author with an opposing opinion to comment on a controversial article, and then publish the two together. The somewhat similar value “editorial” is reserved for commentary written by an editor or other publication staff.)
book-review Review or analysis of one or more printed or online books. (The similar value “product-review” is used for product analyses.)
books-received Notification that items, e.g., books or other works, have been received by a publication for review or other consideration
brief-report A short and/or rapid announcement of research results
calendar A list of events
case-report Case study, case report, or other description of a case
collection Wrapper article for a series of sub-articles or responses; this value’s usage is restricted to articles whose intellectual content appears primarily in <sub-article> or <response>.
correction A modification or correction of previously published material; this is sometimes called “errata” (The similar value “addendum” merely adds to previously published material.)
discussion Invited discussion related to a specific article or issue
dissertation Thesis or dissertation written as part of the completion of a degree of study
editorial Opinion piece, policy statement, or general commentary, typically written by staff of the publication (The similar value “article-commentary” is reserved for a commentary on a specific article or articles, which is written by an author with a contrasting position, not an editor or other publication staff.)
in-brief Summary or teaser of items in the current issue
introduction An introduction to a publication, or to a series of articles within a publication, etc., typically for a special section or issue
letter Letter to a publication, typically commenting upon a published work
meeting-report Report of a conference, symposium, or meeting
news News item, normally current but atypically historical
obituary Announcement of a death, or the appreciation for a colleague who has recently died
oration Reprint of a speech or oral presentation
other None of the article types explicitly named in this list
partial-retraction Retraction or disavowal of part(s) of previously published material
product-review Description, analysis, or review of a product or service, for example, a software package (The similar value “book-review” is used for analyses of books.)
rapid-communication Fast-breaking research update or other news item
reply Reply to a letter or commentary, typically by the original author commenting upon the comments
reprint Reprint of a previously published article
research-article Article reporting on primary research (The related value “review-article” describes a literature review, research summary, or state-of-the-art article.)
retraction Retraction or disavowal of previously published material
review-article Review or state-of-the-art summary article (The related value “research-article” describes original research.)
translation Translation of an article originally produced in a different language
Restriction: This attribute may be specified if the element is used.