Article Title


The full title of a journal article or other journal component such as a book review


The <article-title> element is used in two contexts: as a part of the metadata concerning the article itself and as part of bibliographic reference metadata inside bibliographic citations (<citation> and <nlm-citation>).

The title is nearly always in the original language of publication, but a publisher or archive might choose to place all article titles in one language, such as English, and use the translated title element to hold the original title (Translated Title <trans-title>).

Conversion Note: In the article metadata, the article subtitle and title are two different elements and should be tagged separately, using the <article-title> and <subtitle> elements. Within a bibliographic reference citation, the subtitle cannot be preserved separately. Some DTDs place it within the title; some leave it as untagged data characters within the text of the <citation> or <nlm-citation>. Although this Suite cannot enforce either structure, retrieval performance will be enhanced if the subtitle is placed into the <article-title> element in cited material, so this is considered best practice.

For extensive examples of formatted <nlm-citation>s including use of <article-title>s in <nlm-citation>s, see: Sample PubMed Central Citations. To see tagged versions of these examples, see: Sample PubMed Central Citations - XML Tagged.


id Identifier
xml:lang Language

Related Elements

There are several elements concerned with the title of an article, all contained within the wrapper element <title-group> in the article metadata. The <article-title> is the full title of the article in the original language of the document. The <subtitle> is a subordinate or auxiliary title that adds information to the full title or modifies the full title. The <alt-title> is another version of an article title, usually created so that the title can be processed in a special way, for example, a short version of the title for use in a Table of Contents, an ASCII title, or a version of the title to be used in the right-running-head. The <trans-title> is a version of the title translated into a language other than the original language of publication.

Model Information

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  article-title
                        (#PCDATA %title-elements;)*                  >


Any combination of:

This element may be contained in:

<citation> Citation; <nlm-citation> NLM Citation Model; <product> Product Information; <related-article> Related Article Information; <title-group> Title Group

Tagged Examples

Example 1

In article metadata:

<article-id pub-id-type="publisher-id">WES-10092260</article-id>
<article-title>Systematic review of day hospital care for 
elderly people</article-title>
<pub-date pub-type="pub"><day>27</day>

Example 2

In a NLM-style bibliographic citation:

<nlm-citation citation-type="journal">
<article-title>Electrogastrographic study of patients with 
unexplained nausea, bloating and vomiting</article-title>