Reference List (Bibliographic Reference List)


List of references (citations) for an article, which is often called “References”, “Bibliography”, or “Additional Reading”


No distinction is made between lists of cited references and lists of suggested references.

Conversion Note: The optional paragraph-level elements after the title allow for those rare cases where there is explanatory material inside the list, preceding the references. There may also be similar explanatory material inside each reference group. However, any explanatory material that is outside a citation, for example, preceding a citation or between citations, will need to be relocated to inside one of the citations during conversion.


content-type Type of Content
id Identifier

Model Information

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  ref-list     %ref-list-model;                             >


The following, in order:

This element may be contained in:

<ack> Acknowledgments; <app> Appendix; <app-group> Appendix Matter; <back> Back Matter; <boxed-text> Boxed Text; <notes> Notes; <ref-list> Reference List (Bibliographic Reference List); <sec> Section

Tagged Example

<ref id="B1">
<nlm-citation citation-type="commun">
<person-group person-group-type="author">
<article-title>New Z39.50 resource [Internet]</article-title>
<source>Message to: Karen Patrias</source>
<time-stamp>1:18 pm</time-stamp>
<access-date>cited 1998 Feb 28</access-date>
<comment>[about 2 screens]</comment>
<ref id="B2">