Et Al


Within bibliographic references and contributor groupings, this element designates unnamed individuals (typically indicated in print with the text “et al.”).


Most journals model this as an EMPTY element, typically used to generate the text “et al.” from a stylesheet. However, a few journal DTDs (Blackwell’s, for example) expect content for this element, with such text as “Associates, coworkers, and colleagues”. Therefore (as of Version 2.3), this is an EMPTY element in the more prescriptive Publishing and Authoring Tag Sets and an element with textual contentment in the Archiving Tag Set.

In this tag set, this element may only be used in bibliographic references (in <citation>, <nlm-citation>, and <person-group>). For extensive examples of formatted <nlm-citation>s including use of <etal>s in <nlm-citation>s, see: Sample PubMed Central Citations. To see tagged versions of these examples, see: Sample PubMed Central Citations - XML Tagged.

Model Information

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  etal         %etal-model;                                 >


This is an EMPTY element

This element may be contained in:

<citation> Citation; <person-group> Person Group for a Cited Publication; <product> Product Information; <related-article> Related Article Information

Tagged Example

In a NLM-style bibliographic citation:

<nlm-citation citation-type="journal">
<article-title>Quaternary salts of 2-[(hydroxyimino)methyl]imidazole</article-title>
<source>J Med Chem</source>