One subject term, critical expression, key phrase, abbreviation, indexing word, etc., that is associated with the whole document and can be used for identification and indexing purposes


For a detailed discussion on the use of <kwd>, see Keywords.

Key words are contained in Keyword Group<kwd-group>s, and there may be several sets of keywords, each of which can be identified by language or vocabulary source.

Conversion Note: <kwd>s are not allowed to nest. There are a few journal tag sets in which keyword nesting is used to simulate a two-part list. Such a keyword list should be tagged as a <def-list> instead.


id Identifier

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  kwd          (#PCDATA %kwd-elements;)*                    >

Expanded Content Model

(#PCDATA | bold | italic | monospace | overline | roman | sans-serif | sc | strike | underline | named-content | styled-content | sub | sup)*


Any combination of:

This element may be contained in:



<kwd-group kwd-group-type="author">
<kwd>DNA analysis</kwd>
<kwd>gene expression</kwd>

<kwd>parallel cloning</kwd>
<kwd>fluid microarray</kwd>