Type of Article

Indicates what kind of article this is, for example, a research article, a commentary, a book or product review, a case report, a calendar, etc. This is not a prescribed list, but may take any text value. (See suggested values below.)


This attribute can be used to attach information classes to articles for grouping or searching. An archive may use this, for example, to preserve the publisher’s classification of an article. For best practice, all articles should be assigned types if possible. If the article is not one of the listed types or the type of article cannot be determined, the “other” attribute value may be used, or the attribute may be omitted.

Use for primary article — When the article is a commentary on another article (for example, a correction or addendum), this attribute contains metadata concerning the commentary itself; it does not define the kind of article that is being corrected or amended.


Conversion Note: When possible, this attribute should used on the <article> element to provide typing information for retrieval or record keeping. Many publishers indicate the type of article, either in an attribute like this one, or with unique element declarations (such as <review> or <calendar>), and this attribute has been designed to preserve that information.

Attribute Values

In Elements

Value Meaning
Text, numbers, or special characters Names the type of article. This attribute may take any value, but see the list of suggested values below.
Restriction: This attribute may be specified if the element is used.

Suggested usage

Although designed to accept any text as its value, the following are suggested article identifier types:


The article itself is an abstract (of a paper or presentation) that usually has been presented or published separately.


A published work that adds additional information or clarification to another work (The somewhat similar value “correction” corrects an error in previously published material.)


Material announced in the publication (may or may not be directly related to the publication)


An work whose subject or focus is another article or articles; this article comments on the other article(s). (This value would be used when the editors of a publication invite an author with an opposing opinion to comment on a controversial article, and then publish the two together. The somewhat similar value “editorial” is reserved for commentary written by an editor or other publication staff.)


Review or analysis of one or more printed or online books (The similar value “product-review” is used for product analyses.)


Notification that items, e.g., books or other works, have been received by a publication for review or other consideration


A short and/or rapid announcement of research results


A list of events


Case study, case report, or other description of a case


Wrapper article for a series of sub-articles or responses; this value’s usage is restricted to articles whose intellectual content appears primarily in <sub-article> or <response>.


A modification or correction of previously published material; this is sometimes called “errata” (The somewhat similar value “addendum” merely adds to previously published material.)


Invited discussion related to a specific article or issue


Thesis or dissertation written as part of the completion of a degree of study


Opinion piece, policy statement, or general commentary, typically written by staff of the publication (The similar value “article-commentary” is reserved for a commentary on a specific article or articles, which is written by an author with a contrasting position, not an editor or other publication staff.)


Summary or teaser of items in the current issue


An introduction to a publication, or to a series of articles within a publication, etc., typically for a special section or issue


Letter to a publication, typically commenting upon a published work


Report of a conference, symposium, or meeting


News item, normally current but atypically historical


Announcement of a death, or the appreciation for a colleague who has recently died


Reprint of a speech or oral presentation


Retraction or disavowal of part(s) of previously published material


Description, analysis, or review of a product or service, for example, a software package (The similar value “book-review” is used for analyses of books.)


Fast-breaking research update or other news item


Reply to a letter or commentary, typically by the original author commenting upon the comments


Reprint of a previously published article


Article reporting on primary research (The related value “review-article” describes a literature review, research summary, or state-of-the-art article.)


Retraction or disavowal of previously published material


Review or state-of-the-art summary article (The related value “research-article” describes original research.)


Translation of an article originally produced in a different language