One of the historical dates that may be preserved for an article, such as when it was received or when it was accepted. This element acts (as does the related element <pub-date>) as a container element for date elements, such as <day>, <month>, and <year>, which are typically given numeric values, as well as for <season>, which is just a text string.


For a detailed discussion on the use of <date>, see Dates in Citations.


date-type Type of Date

Related Elements

Within citations (<element-citation> and <mixed-citation>), this element is used to name the date of publication. The elements <year>, <date>, <day>, <month>, and <season> may all be used to describe the date a cited resource was published. Other dates inside a citation, such as a copyright date, the date on which the author accessed the resource, or a withdrawal date, should be tagged using <date-in-citation> with the @content-type attribute used to name the type of date (copyright, access-date, time-stamp, etc.).

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  date         %date-model;                                 >

Expanded Content Model

(((day?, month?) | season)?, year)


The following, in order:

This element may be contained in:

<element-citation>, <history>, <mixed-citation>, <product>, <related-article>, <related-object>


<article-id pub-id-type="pmid">...</article-id>
<aff id="StLukes">...</aff>
<pub-date pub-type="pub">
<date date-type="accepted">
<copyright-statement>Copyright &#x00A9; 1999, British 
Medical Journal</copyright-statement>
<copyright-holder>British Medical Journal</copyright-holder>
<p>To examine the effectiveness of
day hospital attendance in prolonging independent living for elderly