Et Al

Within bibliographic references and contributor groupings, this element designates unnamed individuals (typically indicated in print with the text “et al.”).


Many journals tag sets model this as an EMPTY element, which is typically used to generate the text “et al.” from a stylesheet. However, a few journal tag sets expect content for this element, with such text as “et al.” or “Associates, coworkers, and colleagues”. Therefore, in this Tag Set, this element has been defined as one that permits textual content. The publisher or archive can leave this as an empty element or give it content for display according to their own rules.

In this Tag Set, this element may only be used in bibliographic references (in <element-citation>, <mixed-citation>, and <person-group>).

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  etal         %etal-model;                                 >

Expanded Content Model



Text, numbers, or special characters, zero or more

This element may be contained in:

<element-citation>, <mixed-citation>, <person-group>, <product>, <related-article>, <related-object>

Example 1

In an element-style bibliographic reference (punctuation and spacing removed):

<ref id="B26">
<article-title>Measuring outcomes in care of the elderly</article-title>
<source>J R Coll Phys Lond</source>
<pub-id pub-id-type="pmid">7807432</pub-id>

Example 2

In a mixed-style bibliographic reference (punctuation and spacing preserved):

<ref id="B26">
<etal>et al.</etal>
<article-title>Measuring outcomes in care of the elderly</article-title>.
<source>J R Coll Phys Lond</source>
<pub-id pub-id-type="pmid">7807432</pub-id>.