Role or Function Title of Contributor

The title or role of a contributor (such as an author) to a work, for example, “Editor-in-Chief”, “Contributor”, “Chief Scientist”, “Photographer”, “Research Associate”, etc.


Information on the role or type of contribution is collected in two places, in the @contrib-type attribute on the <contrib> element and in the <role> element (which is part of the contributor information inside a <contrib> element). For example, the <contrib> element’s @contrib-type attribute might have a value of “editor”, whereas the content of the <role> element could be “Associate Editor”. As another example, the <contrib> element’s @contrib-type attribute might be “author”, and the <role> element might contain “Principal Author”.

The <role> element is more likely to appear on screen or in print than the <contrib> element’s @contrib-type attribute value.


content-type Type of Content

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  role         (#PCDATA %role-elements;)*                   >

Expanded Content Model

(#PCDATA | bold | italic | monospace | overline | roman | sans-serif | sc | strike | underline | sub | sup | named-content | styled-content)*


Any combination of:

This element may be contained in:

<collab>, <contrib>, <contrib-group>, <element-citation>, <mixed-citation>, <product>, <related-article>, <related-object>

Example 1

Inside article metadata:

<article-id pub-id-type="pmid">...</article-id>
<contrib contrib-type="author">
<given-names>Anne Williams</given-names>
<role>research physiotherapist</role>
<xref ref-type="aff" rid="StLukes"/>
<contrib contrib-type="author">
<given-names>John G.</given-names></name>
<role>consultant physician</role>
<xref ref-type="aff" rid="RoyalInf"/>
<author-comment><p>on behalf of the Day Hospital 
<aff id="StLukes">Department of Health Care
for the Elderly, St Luke&#x2019;s Hospital, Bradford BD5 
<aff id="RoyalInf">Academic Section
of Geriatric Medicine, Royal Infirmary, Glasgow 
G4 0SF</aff>
<pub-date pub-type="pub">...</pub-date>

Example 2

In an element-style bibliographic reference (punctuation and spacing removed):

<person-group person-group-type="director">
<given-names>D. H.</given-names></name>
<given-names>T. A.</given-names></name>
<role>managing directors</role>
<source>Wildlife habitat relationships in Oregon
and Washington</source>
<publisher-loc>Corvallis, Oregon, USA</publisher-loc>
<publisher-name>Oregon State University Press</publisher-name>

Example 3

In a mixed-style bibliographic reference (punctuation and spacing preserved):

<given-names>D. H.</given-names></string-name>, 
<given-names>T. A.</given-names></string-name>,
<role>managing directors</role>.
<source>Wildlife habitat relationships in Oregon
and Washington</source>.
<publisher-loc>Corvallis, Oregon, USA</publisher-loc>:
<publisher-name>Oregon State University Press</publisher-name>;