Additional information tied to a particular location in the text, which is not considered to be part of the body of the text, but is instead an addition to, source for, or commentary on the text or on a piece of the metadata such as an author


In print, footnotes are traditionally displayed at the bottom of a printed page or in a list at the end of the article (<fn-group>); each footnote reference is marked by a number or symbol and the text of the footnote is prefixed by the same number or symbol to help the reader associate the text with its reference(s). On screen, footnotes may appear as clickable icons, in a separate pop-up window, or in a list with links at the end of an article (<fn-group>) or in a separate footnote area.

A reference to a Footnote <fn> is made with the X(cross) Reference element,

To note a footnote that is not in the same language as the original document (for example, a Latin or Greek footnote for a document in English) use the Language attribute.

Authoring and Conversion Note: When footnotes are grouped at the end of an article, wrap them in a <fn-group> and use an X(cross) Reference <xref> element in the text, as usual, to tie each footnote in the list to a particular location in the text.


fn-type Type of Footnote
id Identifier
symbol Symbol
xml:lang Language

Related Elements

A footnote <fn> usually contains material that cannot stand alone; the material must be related to an word, phrase, or paragraph already in the basic textual material. Supplementary material that stands on its own, that is related to but not directly tied to a particular place in the text, should be tagged using the <boxed-text> element.

Model Description

The following:

Tagged Examples

Example 1

In a table

   <table-wrap id="TN0.170">
   <p>Numbers of patients receiving institutional care at the
   end of scheduled follow up and use of hospital beds among those
   allocated to day hospital or alternative services</p>
   <tr><td>No comprehensive care (3 trials)</td>
   <td align="center">37/411</td>
   <td align="center">&#x2002;66/403</td>
   <td align="center">0.50<xref ref-type="table-fn" rid="TF1-151"></xref>
   (0.26 to 0.96)</td>
   <fn id="TF1-150">
   <p>Data not available for 1 trial.</p>
   <fn id="TF1-151">
   <p>P&#x003C;0.05 (random effects model).</p>

Example 2

In a footnote group

   <p>Funding: NHS Executive Northern and
   Yorkshire Region, Stroke Association.</p>
   <p>Competing interests: None declared.</p>