Year of publication of the article or other work


The <year> element is used in two contexts: as a part of the metadata concerning the article itself, and as part of a description of a cited work inside a bibliographic reference (<citation>) element.

Authoring and Conversion Note: When possible, the year should be expressed as a 4-digit number, for example, “1776”, “1924”, or “0042”.

Model Description

Text, numbers, or special characters

Tagged Examples

Example 1

In article metadata

  <pub-date pub-type="pub">
  <day>27</day> <month>3</month>
  <volume>318</volume> <issue>7187</issue>
  <fpage>837</fpage> <lpage>841</lpage>
  <date date-type="accepted">
  <day>29</day> <month>1</month>

Example 2

In a bibliographic reference list

  <ref id="B8"><label>8</label>
  <article-title>Effects and costs of day-care services
  for the chronically ill: a randomized experiment.</article-title>
  <source>Medical Care</source>
  <fpage>567</fpage> <lpage>584</lpage>.
  <pub-id pub-id-type="pmid">6772889</pub-id>