Names one of the months of the year


Used within both article metadata and citations (<citation> and <nlm-citation>), this element may contain the textual name of a month (“December”), a month-name abbreviation (“Dec”), or a numeric month (“12”). Numeric months are best practice for archives who wish to regularize their data. For extensive examples of formatted <nlm-citation>s including use of <month>s in <nlm-citation>s, see: Sample PubMed Central Citations. To see tagged versions of these examples, see: Sample PubMed Central Citations - XML Tagged.

Conversion Note: For ease in comparisons and searching, many archives prefer that months be converted to numeric values of the following form:



content-type Type of Content

Model Information

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  month        (#PCDATA)                                    >


Text, numbers, or special characters

This element may be contained in:

<access-date> Access Date for Cited Work; <citation> Citation; <conf-date> Conference Date; <date> Date; <nlm-citation> NLM Citation Model; <product> Product Information; <pub-date> Publication Date; <related-article> Related Article Information; <string-date> Date as a String

Tagged Example

<article-id pub-id-type="pmid">...</article-id>
<aff id="StLukes">...</aff>
<pub-date pub-type="pub">
<date date-type="accepted">
<copyright-statement>Copyright &#x00A9; 1999, British
Medical Journal</copyright-statement>
<copyright-holder>British Medical Journal</copyright-holder>
<p>To examine the effectiveness of day hospital 
attendance in prolonging independent living for 
elderly people.</p>