One subject term, critical expression, key phrase, abbreviation, indexing word, etc., that is associated with the whole document and can be used for identification, searching, and indexing purposes


For a detailed discussion on the use of <kwd>, see Keywords.

Key words are contained in Keyword Group<kwd-group>s, and there may be several sets of keywords, each of which can be identified separately by language or vocabulary source.

Conversion Note: <kwd>s are not allowed to nest. There are a few journal Tag Sets in which keyword nesting is used to simulate a two-part list. Such a keyword list should be tagged as a <def-list> instead.


id Identifier

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  kwd          (#PCDATA %kwd-elements;)*                    >

Expanded Content Model

(#PCDATA | email | ext-link | uri | inline-supplementary-material | related-article | related-object | hr | bold | italic | monospace | overline | overline-start | overline-end | roman | sans-serif | sc | strike | underline | underline-start | underline-end | alternatives | inline-graphic | private-char | chem-struct | inline-formula | tex-math | mml:math | abbrev | milestone-end | milestone-start | named-content | styled-content | fn | target | xref | sub | sup | x | break)*


Any combination of:

This element may be contained in:



<kwd-group kwd-group-type="author">
<kwd>DNA analysis</kwd>
<kwd>gene expression</kwd>
<kwd>parallel cloning</kwd>
<kwd>fluid microarray</kwd>