Issue Number


Within bibliographic references (<nlm-citation> and <citation>), the issue number of a journal


For extensive examples of formatted <nlm-citation>s including use of <issue>s in <nlm-citation>s, see: Sample PubMed Central Citations. To see tagged versions of these examples, see: Sample PubMed Central Citations - XML Tagged.

Related Elements

The related element <issue-id> records an identifier for the issue. This <issue> number element is typically just a simple number such as “4” or “35”.

Model Information

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  issue        (#PCDATA %issue-elements;)*                  >


Text, numbers, or special characters, zero or more

This element may be contained in:

<citation> Citation; <nlm-citation> NLM Citation Model; <product> Product Information; <related-article> Related Article Information

Tagged Example

In a NLM-style bibliographic citation:

<nlm-citation citation-type="journal">
<article-title>Electrogastrographic study of patients with unexplained 
nausea, bloating and vomiting</article-title>