Et Al

Within bibliographic references and contributor groupings, this element designates unnamed individuals (typically indicated in print with the text “et al.”).


Many journal tag sets model the <etal> element as EMPTY, that is, the element has no content. Such an empty element is typically used as a place holder, for example, to generate the text “et al.” via a stylesheet. In this Tag Set, the element is usually used as an empty element, but the Tag Set also accommodates those journal Tag Sets that expect content inside <etal>, so the element is modeled with text content instead of as formally EMPTY and may contain text such as “Associates, co-workers, and colleagues”.

This element may only be used in bibliographic references (in <element-citation> and <mixed-citation> via <person-group>).

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  etal         %etal-model;                                 >

Expanded Content Model



Text, numbers, or special characters, zero or more

This element may be contained in:

<element-citation>, <mixed-citation>, <person-group>, <product>, <related-article>, <related-object>

Example 1

In a mixed-style bibliographic citation (punctuation and spacing preserved):

<ref id="B26">
<etal>et al.</etal>
<article-title>Measuring outcomes in care of the elderly</article-title>.
<source>J R Coll Phys Lond</source> <year>1994</year>;
<volume>28</volume>: <fpage>428</fpage>&ndash;<lpage>433</lpage>.
<pub-id pub-id-type="pmid">7807432</pub-id>.

Example 2

In an element-style bibliographic citation (punctuation and spacing removed):

<ref id="B26">
<article-title>Measuring outcomes in care of the elderly</article-title>
<source>J R Coll Phys Lond</source>
<pub-id pub-id-type="pmid">7807432</pub-id>