Year of publication of the article or other work.


The <year> element is used in two contexts: as a part of the metadata concerning the article itself, and as part of a description of a cited work inside a bibliographic reference (<citation> or <nlm-citation>) element. For extensive examples of formatted <nlm-citation>s including use of <year>s in <nlm-citation>s, see: Sample PubMed Central Citations. To see tagged versions of these examples, see: Sample PubMed Central Citations - XML Tagged.

Authoring and Conversion Note: When possible, the year should be expressed as a four-digit number, for example, “1776”, “1924”, or “0042”.

Model Description

Text, numbers, or special characters.

Tagged Examples

Example 1

In article metadata

<article-id pub-id-type="publisher-id">WES-10092260</article-id>
<article-title>Systematic review of day hospital care for
elderly people</article-title>
<pub-date pub-type="pub"><day>27</day>

Example 2

In a NLM-style bibliographic citation

<nlm-citation citation-type="journal">
  <article-title>Electrogastrographic study of patients with unexplained nausea,
  bloating and vomiting</article-title>