Container element to contain the information (such as name and affiliation) about a single contributor to an article, for example, one author


Conversion Note: Use <xref> to point to the institution (Affiliation<aff>), the corresponding information (Correspondence Information<corresp>), or any author footnotes in the author note group.

Anonymous. The name of a contributor that is being withheld or is not known may be recorded using the EMPTY element <anonymous>, which is expected cause text such an “Anonymous” or “anon.” to be generated for display or print.

Conversion Note: For users of the Elsevier Tag Sets, when the ranking or importance of authors has been marked as a note (for example, using <ranking>), the ranking information may be encoded in the <role> element. Thus, the Elsevier-tagged text:


would be converted to:



contrib-type Type of Contribution
corresp Corresponding Author
deceased Deceased
equal-contrib Equal Contribution
id Identifier
rid Reference to an Identifier
xlink:actuate Actuating the Link
xlink:href Href (Linking Mechanism)
xlink:role Role of the Link
xlink:show Showing the Link
xlink:title Title of the Link
xlink:type Type of Link
xmlns:xlink XLink Namespace Declaration

Related Elements

Use the Collaborative (Group) Author or Editor<collab> element for contributions by organizations or groups of people. Use the <on-behalf-of> element within the contributor information to indicate that a person has written as a representative of (on behalf of) an organization or group.

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  contrib      %contrib-model;                              >

Expanded Content Model

((anonymous | collab | name)*, (degrees)*, 
(address | aff | author-comment | bio | email | ext-link | on-behalf-of | role | uri | xref)*)


The following, in order:

This element may be contained in:


Example 1

<contrib contrib-type="issue-editor">
<role>Special Issue Editor</role>
<contrib contrib-type="issue-editor">
<role>Special Issue Editor</role>

Example 2

<article-id pub-id-type="pmid">...</article-id>
<contrib contrib-type="author">
<given-names>Anne Williams</given-names>
<role>research physiotherapist</role>
<xref ref-type="aff" rid="StLukes"/>
<contrib contrib-type="author">
<given-names>John G.</given-names></name>
<role>consultant physician</role>
<xref ref-type="aff" rid="RoyalInf"/>
<author-comment><p>on behalf of the Day Hospital 
<aff id="StLukes">Department of Health Care
for the Elderly, St Luke&#x2019;s Hospital, Bradford BD5 
<aff id="RoyalInf">Academic Section
of Geriatric Medicine, Royal Infirmary, Glasgow 
G4 0SF</aff>
<pub-date pub-type="pub">...</pub-date>