Collaborative (Group) Author or Editor

A group of authors, editors, or other contributors credited under a single name, either as a collaboration in the strict sense of the word, or when an organization such as a laboratory, educational institution, corporation, or department acts as the contributor, for example authored the work


Not to be confused with the element <contrib-group>, which is a container element that holds information such as the names and affiliations of a group of individual contributors.

This element may be used within bibliographic references (<element-citation> and <mixed-citation>).


collab-type Type of Collaboration
id Identifier
xlink:actuate Actuating the Link
xlink:href Href (Linking Mechanism)
xlink:role Role of the Link
xlink:show Showing the Link
xlink:title Title of the Link
xlink:type Type of Link
xmlns:xlink XLink Namespace Declaration

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  collab       (#PCDATA %collab-elements;)*                 >

Expanded Content Model

(#PCDATA | bold | italic | monospace | overline | roman | sans-serif | sc | strike | underline | alternatives | inline-graphic | private-char | chem-struct | inline-formula | abbrev | milestone-end | milestone-start | named-content | styled-content | sub | sup | addr-line | country | fax | institution | phone | contrib-group | address | aff | author-comment | bio | email | ext-link | on-behalf-of | role | uri | xref | fn)*


Any combination of:

This element may be contained in:

<contrib>, <element-citation>, <mixed-citation>, <nlm-citation>, <person-group>, <product>, <related-article>, <related-object>

Example 1

Collaboration with internal semantic material tagged:

<contrib contrib-type="author">
<named-content content-type="program">Joint United
Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)</named-content>,
<institution>World Health Organization</institution>,
Geneva, <country>Switzerland</country>
<contrib contrib-type="author">
<named-content content-type="program">Nonoccupational HIV
PEP Task Force, Brown University AIDS Program</named-content>
and the <institution>Rhode Island Department of
Health</institution>, Providence, Rhode Island</collab>

Example 2

In an element-style bibliographic reference (punctuation and spacing removed):

<ref id="bid.1626">
<collab>The BAC Resource Consortium</collab>
<article-title>Integration of cytogenetic landmarks into
the draft sequence of the human genome</article-title>
<pub-id pub-id-type="pmid">11237021</pub-id>

Example 3

In a mixed-style bibliographic reference (punctuation and spacing preserved):

<ref id="B1"><label>1</label>
<mixed-citation publication-type="book">
<collab>Research Unit of the Royal College 
of Physicians and British Geriatric 
Society</collab>. <source>Geriatric day 
hospitals: their role and guidelines for 
good practice</source>.