Qualifiers that follow a person’s name, for example, “Sr.”, “Jr.”, “III”, “3rd”, etc.


The <suffix> element should be used for parts of people’s names, not for degrees, such as Ph.D. or DDS. The academic degrees are part of the information that is known about a contributor, not part of the name of the contributor, and should take the <degrees> element. Degree and certification information may be placed directly following the person’s name within the contributor information:

<contributor ...>

Or the <degrees> may be included later within the <contrib> element, interspersed with other types of contributor information such as <address>, <aff>, <bio>, and <email>.


content-type Type of Content

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  suffix       (#PCDATA %suffix-elements;)*                 >

Expanded Content Model

(#PCDATA | email | ext-link | uri | inline-supplementary-material | related-article | related-object | hr | bold | italic | monospace | overline | overline-start | overline-end | roman | sans-serif | sc | strike | underline | underline-start | underline-end | alternatives | inline-graphic | private-char | chem-struct | inline-formula | tex-math | mml:math | abbrev | milestone-end | milestone-start | named-content | styled-content | fn | target | xref | sub | sup | x)*


Any combination of:

This element may be contained in:

<name>, <speaker>, <string-name>


<given-names>R. C.</given-names>