Name of a institution or organization, such as a university or corporation, that is the affiliation for a contributor such as an author or an editor


All levels of a multi-tier organization are listed within a single <aff> element, for example, a program, a department, and a university may be part of the same <aff>. Similarly both a division and a corporation would be inside one <aff>.

Conversion Note: In a typical case, the id attribute of an contributor’s affiliation (<aff>), correspondence information (<corresp>), or any footnote in the author note group will be pointed to from one or more <contrib> elements, thereby linking the two.

However, in those instances in which a symbol or some other mechanism denotes a relationship between a contributor and his/her affiliation, correspondence information, etc., use <xref> to point to the affiliation (<aff>), the corresponding information (<corresp>), or footnote in the author note group.

Conversion Note: Even if the explicitly tagged numbers or symbols for author linkages are preserved during conversion, the linkage from a contributor to an affiliation should be made using the ID/IDREF mechanism during the conversion. The ID/IDREF should be created even if the mechanism must be inserted.


id Identifier
rid Reference to an Identifier

Model Information

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  aff          (#PCDATA %aff-elements;)*                    >


Any combination of:

This element may be contained in:

<book-meta> Book Metadata; <book-part-meta> Book Part Metadata; <contrib> Contributor; <contrib-group> Contributor Group; <person-group> Person Group for a Cited Publication

Tagged Example

<book-id pub-id-type="other">handbook</book-id>
<book-title>The NCBI Handbook</book-title>
<aff id="bid.m.1">
<institution>National Center for Biotechnology Information 
(NCBI), National Library of Medicine, National Institutes 
of Health</institution>, 
<addr-line>Bethesda, MD 20892-6510</addr-line>