Typically, the year of publication for a book or other work, but also the year “historical” events in a publishing cycle occurred, for example, the year a manuscript was last updated.


The <year> element is used in two contexts: as a part of the metadata concerning book or book component (such as a chapter), and as part of a description of a cited work inside a bibliographic reference (<citation>) element.

Conversion Note: When possible, the year should be expressed as a 4-digit number, for example, “1776”, “1924”, or “0042”.

Model Information

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  year         (#PCDATA)                                    >


Text, numbers, or special characters

This element may be contained in:

<citation> Citation; <date> Date; <pub-date> Publication Date; <related-article> Related Article Information; <related-object> Related Object Information; <string-date> Date as a String

Tagged Example

<ref id="bid.41">
<article-title>A common language for physical mapping 
of the human genome</article-title>
<pub-id pub-id-type="pmid">2781285</pub-id>