A bibliographic description of a work, such as a journal article, book, or personal communication, that is either cited directly in the text of a book or is listed in the bibliographic reference list at the end of the book (or book component such as a chapter). Citations are typically referenced from within the text of the work.


Although in this DTD Suite citations are allowed to float freely within a paragraph, most books require that the full citation be listed in the bibliographic reference list <ref-list>, and only a X(cross) Reference <xref> be inserted into the text at the place of reference.

Although the DTD does not enforce it, a citation to a journal article should be tagged with as many as possible of the following, so that PubMed Central, CrossRef, or other matching service can make the citation into a live link:


The title of a journal, book, conference proceedings, etc. that is the source of the cited material. (Note: In PubMed Central processing, this is typically the MEDLINE abbreviation of the journal name.)


Title of the article


Volume of the journal


Issue of the journal


Page number on which the article starts


Name of an author or editor


Year of publication


Month of publication (if present)


Date of publication (if present)

The other elements may be tagged if desired. Use the <source> element for titles of books, conference proceedings, etc.

Conversion Note: In order to make citations into live links, as much of the author and date information as is available should be preserved, even if it is not possible to tag all the element just named. The most important date tag is <year>, and it should always be tagged if possible, for example, <year>2003</year>. The <day> and <month> tags are used more rarely; they are provided because some of the citation matching services can use the month and day information if it is available.


citation-type Type of Citation
id Identifier
xlink:actuate Actuating the Link
xlink:href Href (Linking Mechanism)
xlink:role Role of the Link
xlink:show Showing the Link
xlink:title Title of the Link
xlink:type Type of Link
xmlns:xlink XLink Namespace Declaration

Model Information

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  citation     (#PCDATA %citation-elements;)*               >


Any combination of:

This element may be contained in:

<alt-title> Alternate Title; <article-title> Article Title; <book-title> Book Title; <collection-name> Collection Name; <p> Paragraph; <ref> Reference Item; <subtitle> Subtitle; <td> Table Data Cell (XHTML table model); <th> Table Header Cell (XHTML table model); <title> Title; <trans-subtitle> Translated Subtitle; <trans-title> Translated Title

Tagged Example

<ref id="bid.41">
<article-title>A common language for physical mapping 
of the human genome</article-title>
<pub-id pub-id-type="pmid">2781285</pub-id>