Et Al


Within bibliographic references and contributor groupings, this element designates unnamed individuals (typically indicated in print with the text “et al.”).


This DTD allows the <etal> element to be treated as empty, that is, the element has no content or to have text content such as “Associates, co-workers, and colleagues”. This rare element is typically used by stylesheets to generate text such as “et al.”“ or “and others”.

Model Information

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  etal         %etal-model;                                 >


Any combination of:

This element may be contained in:

<citation> Citation; <contrib> Contributor; <contrib-group> Contributor Group; <person-group> Person Group for a Cited Publication; <related-article> Related Article Information; <related-object> Related Object Information

Tagged Example

<ref id="bid.1651">
<etal>et al.</etal>
<source>Mendelian Inheritance in Man</source>
<edition>12th ed.</edition>
<publisher-name>Johns Hopkins University Press</publisher-name>