Et Al


Within bibliographic references and contributor groupings, this element designates unnamed individuals (typically indicated in print with the text “et al.”).


Most journals model this as an EMPTY element, typically used to generate the text “et al.” from a stylesheet. However, a few journal DTDs (Blackwell’s, for example) expect content for this element, with such text as “Associates, coworkers, and colleagues”. Therefore (as of Version 2.3), this is an EMPTY element in the more prescriptive Publishing and Authoring Tag Sets and an element with textual contentment in the Archiving Tag Set. This Book Tag Set allows the <etal> element to be treated as empty, that is, the element has no content or to have textual content.

Model Information

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  etal         %etal-model;                                 >


Any combination of:

This element may be contained in:

<citation> Citation; <contrib> Contributor; <contrib-group> Contributor Group; <person-group> Person Group for a Cited Publication; <related-article> Related Article Information; <related-object> Related Object Information

Tagged Examples

Example 1

In a bibliographic reference (punctuation and spacing removed):

<ref id="bid.1651">
<etal>et al.</etal>
<source>Mendelian Inheritance in Man</source>
<publisher-name>Johns Hopkins University Press</publisher-name> 

Example 2

In a bibliographic reference (punctuation and spacing preserved):

<ref id="B26">
<etal>et al.</etal>
<article-title>Measuring outcomes in care of the 
elderly</article-title>. <source>J R Coll Phys 
Lond</source> <year>1994</year>;
<pub-id pub-id-type="pmid">7807432</pub-id>.