Issue Number


The issue number of a journal, or in rare instances, book


<issue> may be used in bibliographic references (<citation> and <nlm-citation>). For extensive examples of formatted <nlm-citation>s including use of <issue>s in <nlm-citation>s, see: Sample PubMed Central Citations. To see tagged versions of these examples, see: Sample PubMed Central Citations - XML Tagged.


content-type Type of Content
seq Sequence

Related Elements

The related element <issue-id> records an identifier for the issue. This <issue> number element is typically just a simple number such as “4” or “35”.

Model Information

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  issue        (#PCDATA %issue-elements;)*                  >


Any combination of:

This element may be contained in:

<book-part-meta> Book Part Metadata; <citation> Citation; <nlm-citation> NLM Citation Model; <related-article> Related Article Information; <related-object> Related Object Information

Tagged Examples

Example 1

In a bibliographic reference (punctuation and spacing removed):

<ref id="bid.41">
<article-title>A common language for physical mapping 
of the human genome</article-title>
<pub-id pub-id-type="pmid">2781285</pub-id>

Example 2

In a bibliographic reference (punctuation and spacing preserved):

<person-group person-group-type="author">
<article-title>Designing information-abundant web 
sites: issues and recommendations</article-title>.
<source>Web Developers' Journal</source>
<year>1997</year> <season>Winter</season>;
<issue-title>World Wide Web Usability</issue-title>:
<page-range>100&ndash;101, 105, 107&ndash;120</page-range>.