Article Title


Inside a bibliographic reference (<citation> or <nlm-citation>), the full title of a cited journal article.


The title is nearly always in the original language of publication, but a publisher or archive might choose to place all article titles in one language, such as English, and use the translated title element to hold the original title (Translated Title <trans-title>).

Within a bibliographic reference citation, a subtitle cannot be preserved separately. Some tag sets place it within the title; some leave it as untagged data characters within the text of the <citation>. Although this Suite cannot enforce either structure, retrieval performance will be enhanced if the subtitle is placed into the <article-title> element in cited material, so this is considered best practice.


id Identifier
xml:lang Language

Model Information

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  article-title
                        (#PCDATA %title-elements;)*                  >


Any combination of:

This element may be contained in:

<citation> Citation; <nlm-citation> NLM Citation Model; <related-article> Related Article Information; <related-object> Related Object Information

Tagged Examples

Example 1

In a bibliographic reference (punctuation and spacing removed):

<ref id="bid.41">
<article-title>A common language for physical mapping 
of the human genome</article-title>
<pub-id pub-id-type="pmid">2781285</pub-id>

Example 2

In a bibliographic reference (punctuation and spacing preserved):

<ref id="B8"><label>8</label>
</name>. <article-title>Effects and costs of 
day-care services for the chronically ill: a randomized 
experiment</article-title>. <source>Medical Care</source>
<year>1980</year>; <volume>18</volume>:
<pub-id pub-id-type="publisher-id">WES-6772889</pub-id>.