The surname of a person


If there is only one name, for example, “Cher” or “Pele”, that is considered to be a surname for consistency purposes. This is more accurate than using <string-name> because the single name acts as a surname for identification purposes.

Conversion Note: The <name> is one of the few in this tag set to require a specific element sequence. The idea was that names would be converted to this sequence during import conversion. If the name parts are unknown or untagged, put the whole name within the Surname element (<surname>), for example, <surname>Prince Charles</surname>. The tag abuse of overloading the <surname> tag is likely to lead to better searching in a repository than merely leaving the person’s name untagged.

The <string-name> model permits the tagging of name parts within it, so, for example, a <surname> could be tagged within a <string-name>. See Remarks for <string-name>.


initials Initials of Given Names

Model Information

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  surname      (#PCDATA %surname-elements;)*                >


Any combination of:

This element may be contained in:

<name> Name of Person; <speaker> Speaker; <string-name> Name of Person (Unstructured)

Tagged Examples

Example 1

In a bibliographic reference (punctuation and spacing removed):

<ref id="bid.41">
<article-title>A common language for physical mapping 
of the human genome</article-title>
<pub-id pub-id-type="pmid">2781285</pub-id>

Example 2

In a bibliographic reference (punctuation and spacing preserved):

<ref id="B8"><label>8</label>
</name>. <article-title>Effects and costs of 
day-care services for the chronically ill: a randomized 
experiment</article-title>. <source>Medical Care</source>
<year>1980</year>; <volume>18</volume>:
<pub-id pub-id-type="publisher-id">WES-6772889</pub-id>.